At present, the major cultivars of yams include fine yam yam, yam yam, and Japanese yam yam. Both fine long hair yam and yam yam belong to the common yam long column variety. Japanese yam is a variety with strong adaptability, good quality, strong disease resistance, high yield, and promising development. Peng Juntian is a Japanese yam variety that was selected for use in Japan.
Selection of trenches
The cultivation of yams should be avoided as much as possible, generally every three years, and avoid peanuts and red leeks. To choose a deep, loose and fertile plot of soil, it is required to be consistent with the upper and lower soils. The following layers are viscous heavy soil layer and Baishagang soil layer, which should be completely broken when ditching, and at least 1~1.2 meters of soil layer can not have clay. , soil sand and other mezzanine. Otherwise it will affect the appearance of tubers, also have an impact on quality. Neutral soil is appropriate, and trenching is generally used for mechanical trenching. The cultivation of yam is appropriate in the north-south direction. It can be planted in double rows or in single row (you can use the row width to widen depending on the individual plots). In double rows, the row spacing is 1.7 to 1.8 meters, and the row spacing (ditching The distance between the two yams is 40 centimeters. The spacing is between 20 and 25 centimeters, the depth is 85 to 100 centimeters, and the width is 70 centimeters. Leveling should be done while soil preparation is being done to prevent uneven pouring when watering. Drainage design is also required to ensure that there is no stagnant water in the field. When the single row is planted, the spacing is 80 to 100 cm, the width of the groove is 30 cm, the depth of the ditch is 90 to 100 cm, and the spacing between the plants is 20 to 25 cm.
The greenhouse yams generally start planting around New Year's Day. Generally, the surface temperature of 5 cm above the ground is required to be stable beyond 9 to 10Â°C. Before sowing, the yam seedlings are air-dried, which can activate the seed potatoes, and can also play a role in sterilization and high germination rate. If the yam stem is cut off and used as a seed potato, lime powder may be used in the incision to disinfect. In the next kind of time, we have to use buds under a big piece of the same size, so that the buds will be produced. In addition, 500 times of carbendazim, 1,000 times of triadimefon, and 72% of chlorothalonil 1000 should be used. Soak seeds for 3 to 5 minutes, so that they can be sown after drying, and a new high fat film can be sprayed on the seed surface before sowing.
Yam is dominated by organic fertilizer (such as decomposed cake fertilizer, chicken manure, duck dung, or human animal dung, etc.), supplemented by inorganic fertilizer, and the amount can generally be 2000-4000 kg per mu, plus 40-60 kg of high-potassium compound fertilizer, or Use 200~300 kg of yam-specific bio-organic fertilizer to mix well with the soil to prevent burning seedlings.
1, shallow fertilizer. If the basal fertilizer is used more, there is less top dressing or no top dressing. In order to ensure high yield of yams, the topdressing is usually 2 to 3 times. After the plants on the ground grow to about 1 meter, the top nitrogen fertilizer will be topdressed and will be chased every other week or so. Apply once, 3 times. The yam inflated period is dominated by multi-element compound fertilizers with high phosphorus and potassium contents (the ratio of yam to nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium is 1.5:2:5), about 30 kilograms per mu, and it is best to adopt flushing methods. In the late growth stage, 0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 1% urea can be sprayed to prevent premature aging. In particular, it should be noted that the absorption root system of yam is shallow, occurs early, and extends in the horizontal direction. Fertilizer should be applied to the shallow soil layer for yam root absorption.
2, stand to prison. Plug and weed yam are soaked with 6 to 10 cm of open soil after sowing. After pouring, they are sprayed with 100 to 200 kg of water and 150 to 200 g of yam herbicide, and then covered with plastic film. About meters, the front was "human" shaped, the sides obliquely crossed, separated by 7 to 8 meters with a thick bamboo pole or wooden rod reinforcement, in short, must be firmly in place to prevent tripping.
3, Qiao water. The yams are also not too dry. If the yam is too dry, it will seriously affect the swelling of the yam, especially in the tuber enlargement period, from about mid-April to late May. During this period, it will generally be poured once every 10 days, after the end of May. Watering should be properly watered according to the soil moisture.
4, pest control should keep up. Diseases and insect pests are more severe in the heavy land masses, and the incidence of land masses cultivated in the first year is lighter. After the yam vine spreads on shelves, spraying control is started. The main disease of yams is anthrax, which is a fungal disease. The people are called defoliation disease. The leaves in the initial stages of performance are yellow, and there are small spots on the leaves. Finally, the stems are littered and the leaves fall. This disease is mainly prevention. The diseased seed potato was soaked with 25% carbendazim 500 times for 25-30 minutes before sowing, and the seed potato was disinfected. After the cultivation, the field management was strengthened to enhance the disease resistance of the plants.
Generally, 70% mancozeb 500-600 times solution and 50% thiophanate-methyl 700-800 times solution can be sprayed alternately in the early stage of disease. When the disease is severe, it can be used in Japan. Spray for 10 days, usually 2 to 3 sprays.
The harvest time of normal open field yam is very long. From August 20 to April and May of the second year, yam does not rot in the ground and is not deteriorated. Before and after the general frost fall, it is a concentrated harvest period for the Spring Festival market. However, the yam of the greenhouse is different. Because the harvest time is around June 20, the yam itself has low starch content and high water content, so it is not resistant to long-term storage. The yam should be sold in time after harvest. In addition, due to factors such as the scale of cultivation, shed yams are now mostly used for manual excavation because the yam skin is very thin, and it is necessary to prevent mechanical damage when digging yam, and the yam has mud foreskins stacked for sale.
The first kind: It is suitable for growth in the cavity. In addition to hole tube cultivation, reasonable fertilization or complete application of decomposed organic fertilizer can increase the yield and quality of yam. Organic fertilizers can improve soil composition, provide adequate nutrition, extend the release and use of nutrients, increase root respiration, and provide adequate moisture. The yam plants that have just begun to sprout new shoots have their nutrients from the mother potatoes. The yam that enters the early stages of development needs more nitrogen fertilizer to promote its growth. Potash fertilizer is particularly important at the beginning of the formation of the tubers. It seems that yam can easily absorb phosphate from the soil. In addition, if magnesium fertilizer can be added, it will also help increase production.
Second: To cultivate yams (soybean pods), we must choose fertile soil, deep soil, strong water retention and fertility, good ventilation, and convenient drainage and irrigation of sandy soil. Turn 35 to 45 cm deep. When deep-turning the land, we must first 20 to 30 cm of topsoil turned over, and then continue to deep-flip to 35 to 45 cm, should not turn the soil. After the land has been turned deeply, a cultivation ditch has been formed and the basal fertilizer can be applied to the cultivation ditch. Basal fertilizer generally applies 20 kg of calcium superphosphate, 3,000 kg of organic fertilizer, and 200 to 300 kg of grass ash. When fertilizing, the bottom of the planting ditch can be filled with the topsoil that has been turned upside down, with a thickness of 15 cm. Then, the basal fertilizer is applied on the soil layer, and finally the soil is covered with 15 cm. The top dressing of yam is mainly in the middle and late stages of growth, with less need for fertilizer in the early stage. After the emergence of the yam, a 20% human fecal urine fertilizer is applied, and once every 20-30 days. Fertilization can dig a 6 to 10 cm deep fertilization ditch at a distance of 30 cm from the plant, and 700 to 1000 kg of human urine per mu. When underground tubers enter a vigorous growth period, topdressing should be repeated. Mu compound fertilizer 20 to 30 kg, cake fertilizer 40 to 60 kg, or application of ditch planting, fertilization after the casing, in order to ensure that there is sufficient nutrients tuber elongation and expansion. Later, depending on the growth of the plant, it is determined whether or not top dressing.
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