On November 7, it entered the beginning of winter. From a multi-year average, November is the month with the highest number of cold waves. Crops may suffer from cold damage and frost damage. In most parts of China before and after the beginning of winter, precipitation has decreased significantly, air has generally become dry, and soil has lost more water. Therefore, for winter wheat and winter rape planting areas, it is very important to protect floods and prevent drought.
Rape is the only winter oil crop in our country, and it is also a good mouthwash for land use. It has a well-developed root system and secretes large amounts of organic acids. It can decompose and use insoluble phosphorus in the soil. Scientific fertilization is an important link in the high yield, high quality and high efficiency of winter rapeseed. Rapeseed is a crop that requires more fertilizer and has more nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium requirements than rice. From the perspective of current production, reasonable application of phosphorus, potassium, and boron fertilizers can increase the oil content of rapeseed and improve the fatty acid properties of the oil.
Under the premise of making full use of organic fertilizers, applying nitrogen, phosphorus and potash fertilizers according to the soil fertility level and production target is mainly to control the amount of nitrogen fertilizer and increase phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. Take the proposal of nutrient management in rapeseed production in Hubei Province as an example. The recommended amounts of NPK fertilizer are as follows: Yield level 200 kg/mu or more: Recommended application of nitrogen fertilizer (pure N) 11-13 kg/mu, phosphate fertilizer (pure P2O5) 4â€” 6 kg/mu, potash (pure K2O) 7-9 kg/mu, borax 1.0 kg/mu; yield level 100-200 kg/mu: nitrogen fertilizer (N) 8-10 kg/mu, phosphate fertilizer (P2O5) 3-5 Kilograms per mu, potassium fertilizer (K2O) 5-7 kg/mu, borax 0.75 kg/mu, etc.
During the fertilization period, due to the long growing period of rapeseed, the nitrogen and potassium fertilizers can be applied in different stages to increase the utilization rate. For this reason, the frequency of fertilization should be appropriately increased. In addition to basal fertilization, overwintering fertilizer, buddy manure and flower fertilization should be applied. For direct seeding and interplanted rapeseed, it is necessary to increase the time of raising seedlings in winter. The fractional application of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers should appropriately reduce the amount of basal fertilizer and increase the application rate during the growth period. Specific fertilization period: For transplanting rapeseed: 60% of the total nitrogen and potassium fertilizers are used as base fertilizer, 20% for wax fertilizer (50 days after transplanting), and 20% for manure (80 days after transplanting); Rape: 40% of the total amount of nitrogen fertilizer is used as base fertilizer, 30% for drawing fertilizer (about 25-30 days after sowing), 15% for wax fertilizer (about 80 days after sowing), and 15% for alfalfa fertilizer (after sowing 110 Days or so), 60% of the total potassium fertilizer is used as base fertilizer, 30% for wax fertilizer (about 80 days after sowing), 10% for alfalfa fertilizer (about 110 days after sowing), and the rest of the fertilizer is used as base fertilizer.
There is an important issue in current production. Basal fertilizers must be deepened to promote the growth of rapeseed roots. Taking live rapeseed as an example, it has obvious main roots. Lateral roots are distributed along the main root at various levels in the soil, and lateral roots are not well developed. If the fertilizer is applied only on the surface of the soil, it will lead the root system (including the main root) of rapeseed to grow longer than the surface of the soil and not deepen it, forming a â€œfloating rootâ€, which causes the roots of rape to be unstable, and the ability to absorb soil water and fertilizers is reduced, and tends to fall and shoot off. Fertilizer, drought and other phenomena. However, during the growing season of winter rape, they often encounter various kinds of natural disasters or harsh conditions, such as the frozen snowstorm in early 2008, the drought in early 2009, and the unfavorable factors such as spring rain and windy wind in the flowering of rape each year, and may be encountered during the mature period. To the rainy weather, this is a limiting factor for the production of rapeseed in our country. In short, balanced fertilization is beneficial to the safety, high yield, and quality of winter rapeseed.
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